Chemistry in its element: End promo Chris Smith Hello – this week fertilisers, fire bombs, phossy jaw and food additives. Nina Notman Phosphorus is a non-metal that sits just below nitrogen in group 15 of the periodic table. This element exists in several forms, of which white and red are the best known. White phosphorus is definitely the more exciting of the two. As it glows in the dark, is dangerously flammable in the air above 30 degrees, and is a deadly poison. Red phosphorus however has none of these fascinating properties. So where did it all begin?
Symptoms[ edit ] Those with phossy jaw would usually begin suffering painful toothaches and swelling of the gums. The pain was characterized as “persistent yet progressive Treatment[ edit ] Treatments included topical antimicrobials, conservative debridement of sequestra and surgery. The disease was extremely painful and disfiguring to the patient, with dying bone tissue rotting away accompanied by a foul-smelling discharge.
However, removal of the jaw bone had serious effects on patients’ ability to eat, leading to further health concerns including malnutrition. This section may be confusing or unclear to readers.
In the federal Clean Water Act amendments created a national program to control nonpoint source pollution, established under Section of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C ).Ohio EPA is the designated water quality agency responsible for administering the Ohio program.
Etymology[ edit ] Match heads Historically, the term match referred to lengths of cord later cambric impregnated with chemicals, and allowed to burn continuously. The modern equivalent of this sort of match is the simple fuse , still used in pyrotechnics to obtain a controlled time delay before ignition. But, when friction matches became commonplace, they became the main object meant by the term.
If there occurs an emergency at night it may take some time to make a light to light a lamp. But an ingenious man devised the system of impregnating little sticks of pinewood with sulfur and storing them ready for use. At the slightest touch of fire they burst into flame. One gets a little flame like an ear of corn. This marvellous thing was formerly called a “light-bringing slave”, but afterwards when it became an article of commerce its name was changed to ‘fire inch-stick’.
The matches were known as fa chu or tshui erh. Prior to the use of matches, fires were sometimes lit using a burning glass a lens to focus the sun on tinder , a method that could only work on sunny days. Another, more common method was igniting tinder with sparks produced by striking flint and steel, or by sharply increasing air pressure in a fire piston.
Early work had been done by alchemist Hennig Brandt , who discovered the flammable nature of phosphorus in
History and Nomenclature
Phosphorus appears to have been discovered in by Hennig Brand , a German merchant whose hobby was alchemy. Phosphorus, however, remained a chemical curiosity until about a century later when it proved to be a component of bones. Digestion of bones with nitric or sulfuric acid formed phosphoric acid , from which phosphorus could be distilled by heating with charcoal.
In the late s James Burgess Readman of Edinburgh developed an electric furnace method for producing the element from phosphate rock, which is essentially the method employed today. Its cosmic abundance is about one atom per atoms of silicon , the standard. Its high chemical reactivity assures that it does not occur in the free state except in a few meteorites.
May 27, · hi! to be clear what the article is about is turning ‘safety matches’ into friction matches, its not the Victorian recipe for ‘strike anywhere matches’, so they wont strike on your silver or gold vesta cases (‘match safe’ if you’re reading this in American.
JamesY23 1 year ago Reply Okay, you know you can buy strike anywhere matches, don’t you? You do not have to go through this. Buy a bunch of them and store them in dry boxes, containers. I’ve been reading many of your posts and I can’t help but wonder why you make so many simple things seem so complicated. These are not available in Finland either.
I think that these amay be banned in EU, but not sure. I’d like to buy those but it’s not possible to ship them from the States to Finland.
WHITE PHOSPHORUS : Systemic Agent
But after a few days immersed in the sadness of the future, I turned my attention back to the present … and, like a participant in some step program, I started to turn my attention to what I could control: This is why people and animals with chronic kidney disease are often given a protein-restricted diet. This is a double whammy because the body uses calcium to bind with the phosphorus as part of the excretion process.
Oct 28, · (sports) A competitive sporting event such as a boxing meet, a baseball game, or a cricket match. My local team are playing in a match against their arch-rivals today.· Any contest or trial of strength or skill, or to determine superiority. (Can we date this quote?) Drayton many a warlike match (Can we date this quote?) Dryden A solemn match.
Copyright Franklyn E. The cruisers and the battleships routinely reported the number of rounds expended as part of their daily reports. Occasionally, my destroyer, the USS Edison DD made an ammo report when queried by the Squadron commander or other higher authority. But Edison did not routinely make ammo reports. We looked in the magazines after a concentrated firing period and, eye-balling the space, estimated the rounds fired since the last “inventory”.
When appropriate, we made it a point to tell the skipper that we did or did not need ammo.
How to Make Strike Anywhere Matches
Larger Sound Kitchen matches. Boy, if these were chemicals the warnings on them would be a mile wide. May spontaneously ignite with friction!
Food Combining & Portion Sizing. The old mono-meal feeding plan helps avoid wrong food combinations of concentrated protein and starch, but as has been pointed out, eating large mono meals of high-phosphorus and high-protein nuts, high-sugar fruit, or high-acid fruit can present other health challenges by overloading the system with concentrated levels of single nutrients or acid.
Introduction In the Hamburg merchant and alchemist Hennig Brandt heated the residue from evaporating urine with powdered charcoal, and condensed the vapor that was evolved into a waxy solid. This solid glowed in the dark, without heat, an astonishing phenomenon. He called the mysterious substance phosphorus, taken directly from the Greek phosphoros, “light-bringer.
The discovery created quite a stir, and soon nobody was throwing away urine. Travelling alchemists amazed royal audiences, and it was the talk of the time. A normal person excretes about a gram of phosphorus daily. It gave the name to phosphorescence, which is the nonthermal emission of light after the stimulus has been removed, in distinction to fluorescence. The light Brandt observed was chemiluminescence, consequent to the combination of the phosphorus with atmospheric oxygen to form the trioxide.
This was burning, but the light is not due to thermal excitation. When the pentoxide is formed, there is no chemiluminescence. Phosphorus is an important agricultural fertilizer, an essential element in metabolism and the transfer of biological energy, a component of matches, an ingredient in pyrotechnic applications, and besides of considerable scientific interest.
How to Make Phosphorus
It is easy to fool yourself into believing that you are getting sufficient protein from a low-calorie diet when you measure protein by percentage of calories instead of by grams per calorie. Confusing these two measurements seems to have misled many fruitarians into believing that human protein needs are lower than they actually are. A pound person dieting on calories would need to increase their minimum required protein intake to Attempting to lose weight for long periods with a low-calorie diet that consists exclusively of fresh raw fruit and vegetables is not adequate in protein without adding concentrated sources from nuts, seeds, coconuts, avocados, etc.
With a worldwide push to ban the use of white phosphorus matches, the Diamond Match Company got a patent for a non-poisonous match which used sesquisulfide of phophorus. U.S. President Taft requested that Diamond Match give up their patent.
Etymology[ edit ] Match heads Historically, the term match referred to lengths of cord later cambric impregnated with chemicals, and allowed to burn continuously. The modern equivalent of this sort of match is the simple fuse , still used in pyrotechnics to obtain a controlled time delay before ignition. But, when friction matches became commonplace, they became the main object meant by the term. If there occurs an emergency at night it may take some time to make a light to light a lamp.
But an ingenious man devised the system of impregnating little sticks of pinewood with sulfur and storing them ready for use. At the slightest touch of fire, they burst into flame. One gets a little flame like an ear of corn. This marvelous thing was formerly called a “light-bringing slave”, but afterward when it became an article of commerce its name was changed to ‘fire inch-stick’. The matches were known as fa chu or tshui erh. Prior to the use of matches, fires were sometimes lit using a burning glass a lens to focus the sun on tinder , a method that could only work on sunny days.
See How Foods Affect Sleep By Firas Kittaneh We all know nutrition provides our bodies with fuel for the day, but what we eat also affects how we power down at night. Research has found that certain nutrients in food can affect sleep, from how easy it is to fall asleep at a reasonable hour to the quality of rest we get throughout the night. See what you should munch on for better nights and what foods to skip.
Dietary Habits and Your Sleep Have you ever caught yourself napping after a big meal or wishing you wouldn’t have had that post-dinner coffee? What we consume and when can affect our sleep in a variety of ways. One obvious avenue is by stimulating biological systems that keep us awake.
The incredible “”glowing”” history of the “”Devil’s element “”phosphorus Discovered by alchemists, prescribed by apothecaries, exploited by ninth-century industrialists, and abused by twentieth-century combatants, the chemical element phosphorus has fascinated us for more than three centuries.
He decided to look for the “magic substance” that could change lead into gold in urine. In the process of heating and purifying urine, he obtained phosphorus. The discovery was important because it was the first time someone had discovered an element not known to ancient peoples. In that regard, Brand was the first person who could be called the discoverer of an element. Phosphorus is a fascinating element that occurs in at least three very different forms.
If left exposed to the air, it catches fire on its own. It also glows in the dark.
Return to Topics Files are one of man’s simplest tools, yet are capable of an unbelievable amount of cuts, forms, and shapes. Though there are only a handful of file shapes, there are numerous sizes, cuts, and wear conditions. A worn file may still be a useful file, creating a softer cut with a smoother edged line. Cutting can benefit from liquid solutions and wax lubricants, easing clogging and reducing friction and heat.
A simple file cleaner is denatured alcohol. File handles are very important.
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Application of high-performance liquid chromatography-flow injection analysis for the determination of polyphosphoric acids in phosphorus smokes. J Chromatogr A Determination of white phosphorus residues in ducks: Environ Sci Technol 34 9: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of phosphine residues in stored products and processed foods. J Agric Food Chem 48 9: White phosphorus P4 by solvent extraction and gas chromatography.
Proton-induced X-ray emission analysis of munitions disposal residues. Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 2: Walsh ME, Taylor S [ ]. Analytical method for white phosphorus residues in munitions-contaminated sediments.